A few addenda to the original write-up by Schmik:

Bangladesh < East Pakistan. Before 1947, East and West Pakistan were part of India.

Vietnam < French Indo-China. Before the French took control of Vietnam, it was frequently known as Annam, which is originally a Chinese name. There are older Chinese names - there were Chinese settlements in Vietnam from the Han dynasty onward.

Iran < Persia. Persia historically was one of the major powers of the eastern Mediterranean, encompassing parts of Iraq and other lands.

Turkey was the Ottoman Empire, which stretched into southeastern Europe and much of the Middle East until World War I.