The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. Founded 1966 in Oakland, by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, as a counterweight to abuse by the police in the local ghetto. It soon expanded nationally, and their scope expanded
to providing services, such as medical care and schools, to several inner-city communities. Eventually they were decimated by outside forces, most notably FBI head J. Edgar Hoover's COINTELPRO operation. Some leaders left the US, others were jailed; some were killed.