granted to the United States Supreme Court
to pass judgement
on whether the law
s passed by Congress
. It also allows for judging the actions of the president
against the Constitution
It's origin is generally attributed to John Marshall though ideas similar to it had be incorporated in other democratic governments (most notably England when reviewing colonial law.)
It is now considered to be part of the normal system of checks and balances of democratic government though the United States is one of the few that uses it frequently.