which you deny, or cast doubt on, by the act of making it. Habermas
claimed that manipulation
was a form of performative contradiction
. To take part in a conversation
involves an implicit
commitment to ideals of truth
, normative rightness
, which manipulative speech goes against.The simplest case: "Are you asleep?
Slightly subtler: "I've got to stop reinventing myself."
I collect them.