One word I have always heard cited among the canonical examples in this category is the French word coup, which has eventually found its way into English. I believe the literal translation is "strike", but of course its usage encompasses a great deal more. Something like "well-executed maneuver", or "sudden tactical victory" comes close, but the one-word version is so much snappier. Then of course there is the phrase coup d'etat, which has itself been borrowed wholesale to refer to the overthrowing of governments.
I think it says a lot that we English-speakers, who already have at our disposal one of the most enormous vocabularies of any language on Earth, have simply ripped off this one from the French, rather than bother to invent our own equivalent.