Seems to me that you'd have better luck using epoxy or spun glass. Ceramic would have to be pretty bulky to contain the pressures required and not be frangible under normal carrying stress, to the point where it'd be hard to conceal and/or aim properly. Perhaps save ceramic for the projectile, which needs to be as massive as possible in order to allow a slower speed to be useful. This would allow lower pressures and lower-energy propellant to be used.

I'd hazard a guess that an epoxy-resin cylinder with fiberglass shrouding to assist it in holding pressure (and perhaps extended past the muzzle to muffle noise) with a ceramic projectile and an epoxy firing chamber would be more efficacious.

As John Malkovich's character in In the Line of Fire decided, it's probably more efficient to simply put two barrels on the thing á la the Derringer than to try to reload it.