Management is the process
of coordinating and integrating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
is defined as the relationship between input
s and output
s, the goal of which is to minimise resource costs
is the attainment of goals
Most management textbooks give four functions of management:
- Planning: Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
- Organising: Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
- Leading: Includes motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
- Controlling: Monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
Management can therefore be viewed as a process
: it is the set of ongoing decisions and actions in which managers engage as they plan, organise, lead and control.
Hales, C.P. "What do managers do? A critical review of the evidence', Journal of Management, January 1986, pp. 88-115.
Koontz, H and O'Donnel, C. (1955) Principles of Management: An Analysis of Managerial Functions. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Robbins, et al. (2000) Management. Prentice Hall, Australia.