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Neurocomputation is the study of neural networks and how they process information, both biological networks of living things, and the artificial neural nets that are programmed in a computer. The term may also be used to define a neural network in some places.

It often involves a lot of mapping and analysis of how such networks work, as each individual neuron, and all of it's connections to other neurons, need to be mapped, and the information flow through those networks must be analyzed. Even though the individual neurons in both types of networks are becoming well understood, the patterns of firing and information distribution in such networks can become very complex, making it difficult to deduce how exactly they work.

Understanding how a biological network actually works, how it processes information, and possibly even how consciousness arises among the network, are of great interest to some transhumanists/futurists, because it will improve the possibility of creating an analogous network inside a computer that will give rise to similar characteristics.