Also called Ndebele
-speaking people of southwestern Zimbabwe
who live primarily around the city of Bulawayo
. They originated early in the 19th century as an offshoot of the Nguni
Mzilikazi, an Nguni military commander under Shaka, king of the Zulu, came into conflict with Shaka and in 1823 was forced to flee, migrating with his followers first to Basutoland (now Lesotho) and then north to the Marico Valley. In 1837, after his further defeat at the hands of the European settlers of the Transvaal (South African Republic), he moved northward, ultimately (c. 1840) settling in Matabeleland (Zimbabwe), where his successor, Lobengula, extended the tribe's power, absorbing Sotho, Shona, and other extraneous tribal elements. The establishment of the British South Africa Company (1890) led to further conflict with colonists, and the Matabele were defeated in a war in 1893, after which they were administered by the company in separate districts.
The short-lived Matabele state became stratified into a superior class (Zansi), composed of peoples of Nguni origin, an intermediate class (Enhla), comprising people of Sotho origin, and an inferior class (Lozwi, or Holi), derived from the original inhabitants. Men of all classes were organized into age groups that served as fighting units. The men of a regiment, after marriage, continued to live in their fortified regimental village.
Contemporary Matabele reside in hamlets of dispersed family homesteads called kraals. A circle of houses for a husband and his wives and children surrounds the cattle corral. A husband will allocate land and livestock to his wives; the eldest son of the first wife is the principal heir and inherits this property. Mataebele also practice the custom of levirate, in which men inherit the wives and children of their deceased brothers.
Corn (maize) is the staple crop of the Mataebele. Cattle are kept for milk, as a source of prestige, and for use in bridewealth payments and other exchanges. Men do all of the herding and milking and also hunt, while women do most of the farming.