Cryptorchidism is the condition in which the testes fail to descend by twelve months of age, and languish in the abdomen, or inguinal canal. This increases the risk of testicular cancer and leads to infertility.

Pseudocryptorchidism is where this simply appears to be the the case. Sometimes, the testicles can re taken back into the body by a contraction (which is uncontrolled) of the cremasteric muscle of the suspensory cord. Unlike cryptorchidism this does not need surgical treatment, and occurences should become less frequent with age.