This topic is briefly touched upon in the book Revelation Space by Alastair Reynolds.

In the future various 'simulations' of the human mind exist, each different in their complexity. Each is basically a computer program, the simulation is visualised by the use of entoptics.

The highest quality upload in the book was called an alpha-level, this was an exact copy of the human mind using complex scanning techniques. The downside to this technology in the early stages was that it completely destroyed the physical brain (obviously some people would prefer digital immortality). The alpha-level programs were heavily copy protected, as they were the only simulations considered to possess a soul.

The next simulation is known as a beta-level. This is not really a copy of the human mind, instead it is a true simulation. These vary in complexity, the Calvin simulation in the book was compiled from over a decade's worth of 24-hour non-stop surveilance. The idea of a beta-level simulation is to accurately mimic someone, the more data available, the more accurate the simulation. The beta-levels are not copies, just a computers doing their best to replicate an indivdual's mannerisms and thought processes.

The lower simulations such as gamma-level are all turing-capable, but have a limited function.