The turbojet engine
consists of 5 basic components
Air is drawn in through the intake, where the compressor, uhh, compresses it to several times atmospheric pressure. The air is then forced into the combustor, into which fuel is sprayed and ignited. The gasses produced expand rapidly rearward through the turbine, which in turn drives the compressor, drawing in more air. Finally, the gasses pass through the nozzle, producing the thrust which propels the aircraft.
Turbojets often incorporate afterburners, which inject and ignite fuel in the exhaust aft of the turbine, increasing engine thrust by as much as 50 percent. Fans may also be added to direct more air flow into the compressor.
The turbojet concept was first demonstrated circa 100 A.D., when Hero produced a machine called an aeolipile. The device was basically a steel ball with nozzles. Water inside the ball was heated, producing steam which escaped through the nozzles, causing the ball to spin. The principle was first explained by Sir Isaac Newton in 1690 through his Third Law of Motion.
The first turbojet powered aircraft to fly was the Heinkel He 178, which made the first jet-powered flight on August 24, 1939. The aircraft was powered by the HeS 3 engine, designed by Dr. Hans Von Ohain and Max Hahn.