A quantum bit
is a measure of data stored in a quantum information system. Simply put, 1 qubit can store an infinite amount of classical data (numbers, words, etc.) but only 1 bit can ever be extracted. This is because a qubit is a set of two numbers (a vector
in 3d space,) which can go on forever. For example, the numbers could be (3.1415926535897...
) The data is mostly useless, because when measured, a qubit gives a value: 1 or 0. There are algorithms
, however, that allow quantum computing
to use this "hidden" data more effectively than classical data, for instance by factoring
Hardy, Yorick. Steeb, Willi Hans. "Introduction" Classical and Quantum Computing: With C++ and Java Simulations. Pg. ii-xxv.
Nielsen, Michael A. "Rules for a Complex Quantum World" Scientific American, November 2002.