The Application layer provides an interface to end-user processes as well as standardized services to applications. It is responsible for establishing the availability of devices and determining their resources, providing system-independent processes to end users, agreeing on error control and data integrity of communicating applications, and synchronizing applications on the server and client. It handles network access, flow control, and error recovery. Certain Layer 7 protocols use certain Transport layer protocols (like RIP and DNS on UDP).

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