is an early Modern Latin
name for the Japan
ese island of Kyushu
. The name is derived from the contemporary Western name for the island, Ximo
, which is in turn derived from the Japanese word "下" (shimo,
lower) — Kyushu being the southernmost of the main Japanese islands.
In 1698, Johann Jacob Hofmann wrote in his Lexicon Universale:
Dicitur Ximum, i.e., Regia inferior & Saycock, i.e. novem regna, quot continet: Nempe Figen, Bungo, Chicuien, Fingo, Fiunga, Bugen, Satcuma, Volumi & Uto.
(It is called Ximo, i.e., lower Court and Saycock, i.e. nine kingdoms, for as many as it contains: namely Hizen, Bungo, Chikuzen, Higo, Hyuga, Buzen, Satsuma, Chikugo, and Osumi.)
I am guessing here on the identity of Volumi and Uto.
The explanation of Ximum is correct, though the explanation of Saycock is off: he is describing the origin of the name 九州 (Kyushu, nine provinces) itself, which doesn't appear in the entry. Saycock is probably 西国 (saikoku, western country) — Kyushu being the westernmost of the main Japanese islands.
(Notice the spelling of the names in the Latin, which predate Hepburn Romanization: f is common for h in transliterations of the time—it probably being still the contemporary pronunciation—and ng for g is a pronunciation still current in Japanese. "X" standing for "sh" is a feature of Portuguese and the Spanish of the time.)