The Belgian protectorate
that became the two countries of Rwanda
. These had been kingdoms for many centuries, both with a Tutsi
aristocracy ruling a Hutu
majority. They became part of German East Africa
in 1890. Germany
created a military district of Ruanda-Urundi within German East Africa
During the First World War German colonies were occupied by the Allies. Britain and Belgium (which had the neighbouring colony of Belgian Congo) took German East Africa in 1916. By a 1919 treaty with Britain, Belgium retained the Ruanda-Urundi district and the rest became the British territory of Tanganyika.
These were made League of Nations mandates in 1922 and United Nations trust territories in 1946. They were administered from Belgian Congo from 1926 to 1960, then preparations were made for the independence of the two kingdoms on 1 July 1962.
Urundi became independent as the Kingdom of Burundi, and retained its Tutsi dominance, even after the monarchy was replaced by a republic in 1966. But a popular uprising in Ruanda in 1960 dethroned the last Tutsi king (Kigeri V), and it became independent as a Hutu-dominated republic.