In the War Scroll from Qumran, the Kittim are the followers of the fallen angel Belial, who will go to war with the faithful in the Last Days before the end of the world. They probably represent the Romans, or some other malicious foreign power of whom the Essenes were afraid. This usage derives from references in the Hebrew Scriptures where the Kittim or Kittiyim are the descendents of the minor patriarch Javan, said to have colonised Mediterranean Europe and Sicily. References:

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