The Horae, AKA the Horai or the Hours, were the Greek goddesses of the seasons and the natural portioning of time. While nominally they were the personification of the seasons, they governed everything from the progression of the constellations to the fertility of the soil.

Their have been many and various Horae throughout Greek and Roman history, with the most common names being Thallo, Auxo and Carpo or Eunomia, Dike, and Eirene. Their roles were likewise fluid and various across time, with Eirene being the goddess of peace, Carpo guarding the entry to Mount Olympus, Orthosie was the arbitrator of prosperity, etc. However, it is noteworthy that, this being the Mediterranean, the Horae traditionally come in a set of three (or, in Argos, two), broadly representing the seasons of planting, growing, and harvesting. It is tempting to treat this as spring, summer, and fall, but in much of Rome planting was done in November or October, and the crop harvested in July or August.

This is usually glossed over, as in c. 400-500 CE the Greek poet Nonnus wrote of four Horae in his Dionysiaca, cementing the popular image of the Horae as Eiar (spring), Theros (summer), Phthinoporon (fall), and Kheimon (winter).


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