On July 6, 1892, Henry Clay Frick, chairman of Carnegie Steel, closed the plant in Homestead, Pennsylvania and immediately halted talks with striking workers. Pinkerton guards and scabs were dispatched and arrived via barges on the Monongahela River. Workers met them at what is now known as "Pinkerton Landing" and the two groups clashed, leaving seven townspeople and three guards dead. By the end of the day, the Pinkertons were forced to surrender; however, six days later Gov. Pattison sent in 8,000 militia members, who provided security until the workers called off the strike in November. Wages were lowered and the union was broken, not to be revived for 40 years.