System of intelligent response to everyday challenges based on the fundamental principles of Islam, that falls outside of the bounds of Shariah.

Fiqh is often used to guide muslims in new and unorthadox places/situations, and contains the idea of Jurisprudence among others.

It is a primary distinguishing feature of Islam that it allows one to reason about the way ahead instead of being tied down to simple dogma. Fiqh embodies this quality.

I have seen references to the principles of fiqh by Imam Malik as:

  • An explicit text (nass) of the Qur'an.
  • A apparent (dhahir) text which is (an apparent meaning derived from a text which is general and non-specific).
  • An indicative (dalil) text, which may have an interpretation which diverges from its obvious meaning.
  • An implicit (mafhum) text, which has an added meaning coinciding with its obvious meaning.
  • An expositive (tanbih) text, which reports the underlying reason for a judgement (like the statement 'it is filth').
  • The same five categories in respect of the Sunnah;
  • Consensus (ijma').
  • Analogy (qiyas).
  • The practice of the people of Medina ('amal ahli'l-madina).
  • A statement of a Companion (qawl as-sahabi)
  • Judicial preference (istihsan)
  • Blocking of the means (sadd adh-dhara'i').
  • taken from similar writeups elsewhere.

    Also, I have always been told that, traditionally within Islamic jurisprudence, all things are permissable unless a prohibition against them can be found using the principles of fiqh. The extremists frequently turn this on it's head, and forbid everything not expressly allowed in the Qur'an and Sunnah. These people also teach believers to interpret the Qur'an and Sunnah on thier own, without regard to scholarly traditions. This is dangerous, as the order and circumstances of sayings and verses provide the clues as to their full meaning. Ijtihad is not a matter for the reckless, nor for the unwise. This is one of the reasons that it is important to know the isnad of a shaykh when requesting a fatwa.

    Fiqh is arabic for comprehend or understand. To make reason out of the Qur'an and Hadeeth and draw the laws and way of life that govern Muslims.

    Washing for prayers is considered Fiqh science, which in part is drawn from the Qur'an and hadeeth.

    There are 4 major schools of fiqh in Islam today:

    Imam Mohammed Ibn Abdul Wahab.
    Imam Al-Shafi'e.
    Imam Al-Hanbali.
    Imam Al-Hanafi.

    Abdul Wahab is the most orthodox, mainly practiced in the Arabian peninsula and Afghanistan.

    Al-shafi'e, Hanbali and Hanafi are mainly practiced in Egypt and other parts of the Muslim world. The differences between each school can hardly be noticed, one can think of each school as revivals to the old laws. There have been many schools through out the centuries rising and falling. Abdul Wahab revived the Arabian peninsula back into old Islamic laws after seeing people associate worshiping trees and grave yards of dead people with Allah.

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