Epididymo-orchitis is a condition in which a testicle becomes very inflamed or painful, particularly in the epididymis. In severe cases the scrotum may become very hot, and reddened. The condition often appears suddenly, and must be dealt with quickly.

While the symptoms are very similar to those of testicular torsion the cause is not a physical one, as causes that disorder. Instead, the condition is caused by infection of the testicle and epididymis. This infection is normally gonorrhoea or chlamydia. Otherwise, a UTI may cause this condition. In many cases however there is no obvious cause.

Urgent treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Even if this is sucessful, it may still take many weeks for the swelling to go down. Any underlying cause must also be treated, or recurrence is likely. In cases in which treatment is unsucessful, amputation may be the only resort.

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