1500-1515 In Korea, Chungjong (1482-1519) ruled. He favored Neo-Confucianism. He made sure that text about the subject be translated from Chinese into Korean. In Vietnam the Le dynasty took power in 1527.
1515-1530 The later Ming dynasty was in power during the 16th century and gradually dissolved during the 16th century. Portuguese traders arrived for the first time, in China (1517). They were permitted to trade with the Chinese. Japanese pirates patrolled the sea making it dangerous for Chinese sailors. In Vietnam the Le dynasty ended when all the Le kings were assassinated in 1527 by Mac Dang Dung and Mac takes the throne.
1530-1545 The Chinese fought off the invaders from the north, the Mongols led by Altan Khan in 1542. The Portuguese introduced the musket to the Chinese and the Japanese and made trading treaties with the Japanese’s west lords. The other lords of Japan thought that only the traditional samurai weapons were honorable, but this would be their undoing.
1545-1560 Famines and rising taxes made by the Ming government, caused unrest in China during the rest of the Century. Chungjong was executed in 1519 during factional strife in Korea. Christianity was introduced in 1549 to Japan, without much success.
1560-1575 King Sonjo came to power in Korea in 1552. Neo-Confucian academies started popping up around Korea. In Japan Oda Nobunaga took control over Kyoto in 1568 with his new Portuguese muskets and set up a puppet shogun. He gained more control when the emperor giving him control over most of Japan except around Central Japan were the Emperor lived. Finally he conquered central Japan as well.
1575-1590 In China the Ming dynasty broke out in corruption in 1582. Buddhism started to prosper in Japan, but Nobunaga hated them and set out to destroy Buddhism. He was opposed by the Buddhist. Toyotomi Hideyoshi helped Nobunaga and set out to conquer West Japan. Before Nobunaga’s death the leaders opposing Nobunaga died. Finally, in 1518 Nobunaga was killed by one of his generals and Hideyoshi took Nobunaga’s place. Hideyoshi finally gained complete control over Japan and ordered that no one would be allowed to have weapons in 1590.
1590-1605 The Chinese sent help to Korea when it was attacked by the Japanese in 1592. The evasion led by Hideyoshi lasted until 1598. Another attempt was made after Hideyoshi’s death in 1598 and this one was even less successful then the first. Though many captives were taken from Korea. After Hideyoshi’s death a civil war erupted for the throne and Tokugawa Ieyasu came out the winner. Before his death Hideyoshi killed many Christians because of the bickering between them in his country. Spanish traders came to Eastern Japan and made treaties. In Vietnam there was much friction for the throne. It had been this way for about 100 years. Confucianism came to Vietnam and was very popular.
1605-1620 Ties with Japan started to form in 1606. King Kwanghaegun
became ruler of Korea in 1608 and ruled till 1623. He brought about peace to the
peninsula. A Korean book about medicine and remedies was finished in
1610. It had nearly two centuries of work put into it. The Shogun Ieyasu retired and
Hidetada took his place in 1605 and ruled till 1623. After Hidetada, his son Hidetada
jr. (he actually was just called Hidetada and never jr.), ruled. Neo-Confucianism starts
in Japan in 1607. The first Dutch Trading post was established in Japan. Christians
in Japan started to be persecuted in 1612. The first Japanese emissaries were sent to
Spain and to the Pope in 1613. The heir Of Hideyoshi (Hideyori) and his mother
were killed by Ieyasu in 1615. Ieyasu died in 1616. The persecution of Christians was
intensified by Hidetada in 1617.
1620-1635 In 1623, King Injo came to the throne of Korea. The Manchus invaded Korea in 1727 and they ordered Korea to become a vassal state. Korea refused and the Manchus invaded again forcing Korea to become a vassal state. Iemitsu came to the Japanese throne in 1623 and ruled till 1651. He saw to it that final searches for Christians were made and there was more persecution of Christians. The persecution was more intense than any other persecution in Japan. Now the tide of Japan changed, the English left Japan because the trade was not good (1623), the Spaniards were driven out of Japan (1624), and Japanese were forbidden to leave Japan (1636) (shipbuilding was totally stopped 1638). Catholic priest and missionaries start to earnestly work in Vietnam starting in 1624. Nguyen-Trinh warfare in Vietnam erupted in 1627 and would last until the late 1670s. European traders during this time complicated the troubles at home even more. Some Europeans help different sides against each other. Though the Europeans were less despised in Vietnam then anywhere else in the Orient.
1635-1650 In China (1641) rebels start to take over parts of China. The Chinese beg the Manchus to help them and the Manchus destroy the rebels, but go on to take over China ending the Ming dynasty and beginning the Qing dynasty which would last until 1911. The peasants of Shimabara and Amakusa rebelled against Japan in1637 because of the persecution of Christians. The peasants rebelled because of the Christain community these places had. They had the Dutch on their side and were able to defend themselves well untill their supplies ran out. The Japanese forces then went on to kill every one of the rebellious Christians (1638). Christians were finally stamped out of Japan. In 1638 the Portuguese were kicked out. The Dutch were partially kicked out, they were only allowed to occupy the Islet of Deshima and were put on a very short lease with little trust in 1641.
1650-1665 Ietsuna became shogun of Japan in 1551 and was shogun until 1680. Many rebellions happened in Edo (now Tokyo) in 1651 to 1652. These would be the last rebellions Japan would face untill the 19th Century. In 1557 the History of Great Japan, a Japanese book, was begun. It was finished in 1720. In 1657 a great fire destroyed much of Edo and its castles.
1665-1680 During the time when Japan was isolated, it was peaceful and very prosperous for about 250 years.
1680-1695 In Japan Tsunayoshi (the dog shogun) brought hardships on the people in 1684 by decreeing that no living thing was to be killed, limiting their food supply and there had to be extra privileges on dogs. These rules were Buddhist inspired. Tsunayoshi made many other hardships for the people.
1695-1710 The Genroku Period is the period in Japan (1688-1704) in which the merchants started to gain a lot of power because so many Samurai were in dept to them. It also refers to the great playwrights, arts and poetry in Japan at that time.
1710-1725 In Korea (1708) the Uniform Land Tax Law was created. Also new methods of farming helped to improve the yield of the crops. In Japan (1703) the Chushingura Incident occurred, Kira Yoshinaka was assassinated. He was partly responsible for this though because he had his servants kill Lord Asona Naganori. A great earthquake and fire destroyed Edo (now Tokyo) in 1703. Ienoba became shogun in 1709 and ruled until 1713. In 1711 Trinh ruler of Vietnam was losing power and lords were coming up with ways to get around taxes. By 1713 only a third of the populace was being taxed.
1725-1740 In 1722, Shizong became Emperor of China. His rule was a peaceful one, but there was always small fighting in the west with the Mongols. The Chinese would only allow Europeans to trade at Guangzhou where they let trading posts be built. In 1713, the infant Ietsugu became the shogun of Japan and ruled until 1716. The trade with the Dutch decreased greatly in 1715 after the amount of copper that the Japanese would take in was reduced. Yoshimune became shogun in 1716. He was the wisest of the rulers of Japan and ruled till 1745. Yoshimune encouraged the study of European subjects from which the Japanese learned much.
1740-1755 In 1727, the Kiakhta Treaty between China and Russia was made, fixing the boundary between the two countries. In 1729, the Grand Counsel was formed. It gradually usurped the Grand Secretariat. In 1735, the Qing took control over Eastern Turkestan. In 1736, Qianlong became emperor of China. He was a great philosopher and wrote poetry, created libraries, and supported the arts. He ruled till 1796. In 1732 a great famine swept over Western Japan and it would have gone on for a very long time if Yoshimune hadn’t done his best to help his people. In Vietnam, 1730, Trinh was trying his best to stop trouble in Vietnam, but Vietnam was not a very advanced civilization and was crumbling fast. Whole villages were deserted by peasants moving to other countries to find a better life. With fewer peasants not enough food was produced and famines ensued causing rebellions. Religion was deserted. Vietnam was falling into great confusion.
1755-1770 In 1751, the Qing conquered Tibet and from then on dominated the ]Dalai Lama] succession. In 1742, Japan the criminal law was changed (for the rest of the Tokugawa period) for the benefit of the judges and administers. In 1759 all of Turkestan fell to the Qing after Mongol power was eliminated from Turkestan (1755-1759). The Qing invasion of Burma failed to reach the capital at Ava (1765-1769). In 1742 Takenouchi Shikibu and his noble friends were punished by Edo for favoring imperial restoration in Japan. In 1760, Ieharu became shogun and ruled till 1786. By this time though the Tokugawa rule was a downward course.
1770-1785 In 1784, the United States entered the Guangzhou Trade. In 1783, a double climate happened in Japan when Mount Asama erupted and famine in the north began. In 1771, three brothers from the village of Tayson started a rebellion and reunited Vietnam. Then in 1788, when China tried to invade Vietnam, Nguyen Hue, a brilliant general, defeated the Chinese and placed himself on the throne of Vietnam.
1785-1800 In 1786, Taiwan rebelled against china but the rebellion was suppressed and ended in 1787. In 1792 the Qing invaded Nepal and took over. A revolt was started in Hunan and Guizhou 1795, but was suppressed in 1797. In Japan (1787) rice riots exploded in Edo. In 1787, Ienari became shogun, but he was a child and Matsudaira Sadanobu ruled for him. By this time Japan started to see that European powers were rapidly expanding. In Vietnam (1788), Quang-trung became ruler of Vietnam and did his best to improve the economy of Vietnam. He ruled till 1792. In 1788 rebellious forces headed by Nguyen Anh and with French help took over Saigon and then went on to take over Hue (1801). He made himself ruler as Gialong in 1802 and ruled till 1820.