From Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (London, 1880)

ACA'CIUS('Acacios), a rhetorician, of Caesarea in Palestine, lived under the emperor Julian, and was a friend of Libanius. (Suidas, s. v. 'Acacios, Aobanios: Eunapius, Aeacii Vit.) Many of the letters of Libanus are addressed to him.

B. J.

2. A Syrian by birth, lived in a monastery near Antioch, and, for his active defence of the Church against Arianism, was made Bishop of Berrhoea, A. D. 378, by St. Eusebius of Samosata. While a priest, he (with Paul, another priest) wrote to St. Epiphanius a letter, in consequence of which the latter composed his Panarium (A. D. 374-6). This letter is prefixed to the work. In A. D. 377-8, he was sent to Rome to confute Apollinaris before Pope St. Damasus. He was present at the Oecumenical Council of Constantinople A.D. 381, and on the death of St. Meletius took part in Flavian's ordination to the See of Antioch, by whom he afterwards sent to the Pope in order to heal the schism between the churches of the West and Antioch. Afterwards, he took part in the persecution against St. Chrysostom. (Socrates, Hist. Eccl. vi. 18), and again compromised himself by ordaining as successor to Flavian, Porphyrius, a man unworthy of the episcopate. He defended the heretic Nestorius against St. Cyril, though not himself present at the Council of Ephesus. At a great age, he laboured to reconcile St. Cyril and the Eastern Bishops at a Synod held at Berrhoea, A. D. 432. He died A. D. 437, at the age of 116 years. Three of his letters remain in the original Greek, one to St. Cyril, (extant in the Collection of Councils by Mansi, vol. iv, p. 1056,) and two to Alexander, Bishop of Hierapolis. (Ibid. pp. 819, 830, c.41. 55. § 129, 143.)

3. The One-eyed (d Monophthalmos), the pupil and successor in the See of Caesarea of Eusebius A. D. 340, whose life he wrote. (Socrates, Hist. Eccl. ii. 4.) He was able, learned, and unscrupulous. At first a Semi-Arian like his master, he founded afterwards the Homoean party and was condemned by. the Semi-Arians at Seleucia, A. D. 359. (Socrates, Hist. Eccl. ii. 39. 40; Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. iv. 22. 23.) He subsequently became the associate of Aëtius, the author of the Anomoeon, then deserted him at the command of Constantius, and, under the Catholic Jovian, subscribed the Homoousion or Creed of Nicaca. He died A. D. 366. He wrote seventeen Books on Ecclesiastes and six of Miscellaides. (St. Jerome, Vir. Ill. 98.) St. Epiphanius has preserved a fragment of his work against Marcellus (e. Haer. 72), and nothing else of his is extant, though Sozomen speaks of many valuable works written by him. (Hist. Eccl. iii. 2.)

4. Bishop of Constantinople, succeded Gennadius A. D. 471, after being at the head of the Orphan Asylum of that city. He distinguished himself by defending the Council of Chalcedon against the emperor Basiliscus, who favoured the Monophysite heresy. Through his exertions Zeno, from whom Basiliscus bad usurped the empire, was restored (A. D. 477), but the Monopbysites meanwhile had gained so much strength that it was deemed advisable to issue a formula, conciliatory from its indefiniteness, called the Henoticon, A. D. 482. Acacius was led into other concessions, which drew upon him, on the accusation of John Talaia, against whom he supported the claims of Peter Mongus to the See of Alexandria, the anathema of Pope Felix II. A. D. 484. Peter Mongus bad gained Acacius's support by profess, ing assent to the canons of Chalcedon, though at heart a Monophysite. Acacius refused to give up Peter Mongus, but retained his see till his death, A. D. 488. There remain two letters of his, one to Pope Simplicius, in Latin (see Concilioruin Nova Collectio a Mansi, vol. vii. p. 982), the other to Peter Fullo, Archbishop of Antioch, in the original Greek. (Ibid. p. 1121.)

5. Reader at (A. D. 390), then the Bishop of Melitene (A. D. 431). He wrote A. D. 431, against Nestorius. His zeal led him to use expressions, apparently savouring of the contrary heresy, which, for a time, prejudiced the emperor Theodosius II. against St. Cyril. He was present at the Oecumenical Council of Ephesus A. D. 431, and constantly maintained its authority. There remain of his productions a Homily (in Greek) delivered at the Council, (see Conciliorum Nova Collectio il Mansi, vol. v. p. 181,) and a ltter written after it to St. Cyril, which we have in a Latin translation. (Ibid. pp. 860, 998.)

A. J. C.

An original e-text for everything2. I scanned, OCR'd, formatted, and linked this text - it is not available in any format on any other web site. All Greek words are transliterated into Latin characters.

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