"I have neither eye to see, nor tongue to speak here, but
as the House is pleased to direct me."
- MP William Lenthall, when Charles I asks the whereabouts of the MPs he wished to arrest.
Born in 1642:
Died in 1642:
The Thirty Years' War, the English Civil War, and the collpase of
Ming Dynasty authority in China ensure that millions would die violently.
Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo Galilei.
Saskia van Rijn, wife of Rembrandt.
Italian painter Guido Reni.
Dutch painter Pieter van Laer, aka 'Bamboccio'.
Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts.
English poet Sir John Suckling.
Jesuit priest Thomas Holland, drawn and quartered for ministering
to Catholics in London.
Manchester linen weaver Richard Perceval, the first casualty
of the English Civil War.
Japan completes its suppression of Chrisitanity following the Shimabara
Rebellion, crucifying the last Japanese priest.
Future Italian Saint Francis Jerome.
Marie de Médici, mother of French King Louis XIII and
English Queen Henrietta Maria.
Ming Prince Chu, drowned in a bamboo cage thrown into a lake.
Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, prime minister to Louis
Zill-u'llah 'Abu'l Muzaffar Sultan Safi, Shah of
Iran. His son succeeds as Abbas II.
King Outey I of Cambodia, deposed by Cham Chan Rama Thupdey
(Chau Ponhea Chan).
Henri Coëffier Ruzé d’Effiat, marquis
de Cinq-Mars, executed for conspiring against Richelieu.
Events of 1642:
- Chinese physician Wu Youxing publishes a treatise on hte plague, Wenyilun ('On Pestilence').
Blaise Pascal invents the 'Pascaline', a gear-driven adding
Thomas Fuller's religious tome The Holy State and the Profane
State is published.
Claidio Monteverdi's opera The Coronation of Poppea appears.
Father Isaac Jogues is captured by Mohawks
Rembrandt van Rijn is commisioned to paint the Civic Guard Company
of Frans Banning Cocq, known better today as The Night Watch.
They never do pay him. Rembrandt is forced to sue Andries de Graeff
for nonpayment. Although he wins, the bad publicity costs him patronage
Khoshut Mongol chief Gushri Khan defeats Karnma Tankyong, King of the
Tibetan province of Tsang, completing the conquest of Tibet. Gushri
Khan establishes Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the fifth Dalai Lama
as spiritual and temporal ruler. The capital of Tibet moves to Lhasa.
- Imomqulikhan, khan of Bukhara, gives up power to his brother Nodirmuhammad, and departs on the hajj.
New French settlements:
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman is given a commission to explore the South
Sea by VOC governor of Ceylon Antonie
Van Diemen, and sails south of Australia into the Pacific Ocean.
He sights Tasmania ('Van Diemen's Land') and New Zealand
The VOC occupies Chilung in northern Taiwan.
Two of Outey's sons escape Chau Ponhea Chan's purge of the Cambodian royal
family. They flee to Hue, capital of neighboring Annam.
Ming authority in China crumbles in the face of peasant revolts, and attacks
Polish King Wladyslaw IV captures Smolensk from Russia.
The Thirty Years' War has ravaged Germany, and tired Germans really
want peace, but the major powers want to play some more.
(January) The various Brunswick dukedoms sign the Peace of Goslar
(January 13) The Marquis de Cinq-Mars, having convinced several
high French nobles (including the duc
de Bouillon and the King's own brother, the duc d'Orleans) to rebel against
Cardinal Richelieu, signs a secret treaty with Philip IV of Spain,
who agrees to supply him with troops and arms.
(January 17) French and Hessian forces capture Kempen in the
Swedish General Lennart Torstensson brushes aside Saxon forces
at Schweidnitz and invades Moravia.
The Emperor assembles an army to fight off the Swedes.
(June) Richelieu discovers Cinq-Mars's conspiracy, and has him arrested
and beheaded. The duc d'Bouillon (whose brother Henri Turenne is
busy fighting the Spanish in the south) is also arrested, but his wife
threatens to open Sedan to the Spanish. The duke is released
after ceding Sedan to France.
(July) the Emperor ratifies the Preliminary Treaty of Hamburg, allowing
the Congress of Westphalia to eventually commence.
(September 19) Perpignan (capital of the Roussillon region in
the Eastern Pyrenees) surrenders to the French.
(November 2, Second Battle of Breitenfeld) Archduke Leopold and
General Ottavio Piccolomini catch up with Tortensson at Breitenfeld
outside Leipzig. Eleven years previously, Swedish king Gustavus
Adolphus had destroyed Bavarian forces under the Count of Tilly.
This time, Torstensson attacks the Imperial army while it is still trying
to assemble and destroys it.
(December 4) Richelieu dies.
With an uprising already ongoing in Ireland, Civil
war spreads to England as king Charles I tries to regain power
from the Puritan-dominated Long Parliament:
(January 4) Charles tries to arrest five leaders of Parliament (John
Pym, John Hampden, Sir Arthur Hesilridge, Lord Denzil Holles, and
William Strode). When the House of Lords refuses to impeach them
and Lord Mandeville, Charles takes matters into his own hands, bringing
swordsmen into the House of Commons to arrest them, but finding that
'the birds are flown'.
(February 13) Parliament excludes bishops from the House of Lords.
Queen Henrietta Maria flees to Holland, taking the Crown Jewels
with her. She gives Prince Rupert (just released by the Emperor) a cavalry
command, and he leaves for England.
(March) Charles leaves Hampton Court for York, where he works to gather
support. He appoints the duke of Newcastle as the commander at Hull,
but the Hull garrison locks the duke out.
(March 5) Parliament passes the Militia Ordinance, taking control
of the Army.
(March 19) Parliament pledges land in Ireland to people (known today as
'adventurers') willing to invest in suppressing the rebellion.
(April 3) Scottish forces under General Robert Munro land at Carrickfergus in Ulster. Munro captures Newry.
Daniel O'Neill is thrown into the Tower of London for his involvement
in the previous year's army plots
(May 10) The Irish rebellion has spread throughout the island. Irish Catholic
meet in Kilkenny to restore some sort of order.
(June 3) Parliament makes its list of demands
Charles, basically demanding all power for iteslf. Charles rejects
these, and calls in his Lords' feudal obilgations to supply troops.
(July 6) Owen Roe O'Neill, having left Spanish service in Flanders,
lands in Donegal with a company of Irish veterans to fight off the Royalist,
Parliamentarian, and Covenanter forces trying to supress the Irish rebellion.
(July 15) A riot breaks out between Royalist and Parliamentary supporters
in Manchester, leading the the first deaths of the Civil War.
(July) Prince Rupert arrives at Tynemouth.
(August 22) Charles raises his standard in Nottingham. He
sends the Earl of Southampton to negotiate for peace with Parliament,
but they refuse.
(September 2) The House of Commons bans all public stage plays,
and orders all theaters in England closed.
(September 23) Prince Rupert's cavalry holds off the Earl of Essex
at Powick Bridge near Worcester, long enough to cover Sir John
(October) The Confederation of Kilnenny meets and establishes
a government for Ireland.
(October 23) Charles, marching his army from Shrewsbury to London,
meets the Earl of Essex's army, marching from London, near Edgehill.
The Royalist army leaves the high ground to fight the Parliamentarians
below. The Parliamentarians hold off the attack, Prince Rupert manages
to get the cavalry back uphill. Essex withdraws and Charles fails
to pursue quickly enough.
(November 12) Prince Rupert sacks the Parliamentarian garrison at Brentford.
(November 13) Charles finally catches up with Essex at Turnham Green,
but seeing that Essex's army has been reinforced, withdraws to Reading,
and eventually to Oxford, which becomes Charles's capital.
Charles appoints William Claiborne to be treasurer of Virginia
for life. Maryland governor Leonard Calvert establishes control
over Claiborne's former settlement in Kent Island, appointing Claiborne's
brother-in-law as commander of militia, and distributes land on Kent Island
to Calvert supporters such as Lady Margaret Brent.
1641 - 1642 - 1643
How They Were Made - 17th Century