(Also: Abd al-Rahman III, Abd al-Rahman Nasir li Din Allah)
Islamic ruler of Spain from 912 to 961.
The first of the Spanish Umayyad dynasty to claim the title of Caliph (in 929). When he came to power, the Umayyad domains were torn by discord between rival Arab tribes, Muslim converts and Christians. Restoring peace, Abd al-Rahman III defended his territory against Christians in the North and Fatimids in the South. His navies dominated the Western Mediterranean. In this period, the Umayyad capital of Córdoba became one of the leading centres of culture and learning in Europe.