The Angles and Saxons began their invasion into England during the final days of the Roman Empire, and within 150 years, they dominated their new land. The Saxon language is Germanic in origin, but it was always referred to as English whether spoken by the Saxons, Jutes, or Angles.

The term Engla Lande (Land of the Angles) was found to be in use by around A.D. 880. The Saxon language and culture later became absorbed by the Vikings and Danes.

While some of the words below are impossible to decipher, our own modern English today nevertheless traces many of roots to the old Saxon language.

The Vocabulary:

Aefen: Evening.

Aernemergen: Early morning.

Alderman: Noble.

Andsaca: Enemy.

Anfohrt: Terrified.

Anhaga: Solitary.

Atheling: Prince.

Bana: Slayer.

Beaudurinc: Warrior.

Bilwit: Innocent.

Brimann: Viking.

Byrne: Coat of mail.

Breastcofa: Heart.

Burh: Fort.

Cald: Cold.

Cicen: Chicken.

Cnapa: Servant.

Cwen: Queen.

Cynelic: Noble.

Cwene: Woman.

Cyning: King.

Cyssan: Kiss.

Daest: Day.

Dene: Dane.

Deore: Beloved.

Derian: Harm.

Dol: Foolish.

Draca: Dragon.

Dyrne: Secret.

Eafora: Son.

Eald: Old.

Eam: Uncle.

Eorcastan: Jewel.

Eoten: Giant.

Faeder: Father.

Faemne: Maiden.

Feond: Enemy.

Flan: Arrow.

Freond: Friend.

Fyrd: Army.

Gast: Angel.

Gebiddan: Pray.

Gewinnan: Conqueror.

Hafoc: Hawk.

Hatheort: Impulsive.

Holm: Sea.

Holt: Forest.

Hordcofa: Heart.

Hwitel: Knife.

Ides: Woman.

Leasung: Lying.

Leod: Prince.

Leof: Dear.

Lind: Shield.

Lytling: Child.

Maeg: Kinsman.

Mage: Kinswoman.

Mandrinc: Poison.

Mearh: Horse.

Middeag: Midday.

Nieten: Beast.

Nithing: Coward.

Preost: Preast.

Sar: Pain, wound.


Seax: Dagger or sword.

Serf: Unfree peasant.

Snaw: Snow.

Snell: Bold.

Steorra: Star.

Sweoster: Sister.

Swetnis: Sweetness.

Thane: Landlord.

Treow: Faith, truth.

Undeadlic: Immortal.

Unrhyt: Unjust.

Waed: Water.

Weard: Guardian.

Wer: Husband.

Wiccecraft: Witchcraft.

Wiffian: Marry.

Wine: Friend.

Wyf: Wife.

Wyrm: Worm.

Yfel: Evil.

Yifetu: Swan.