Lovely, languid dream-rock band led by lead singer, guitarist, muso, Scott Levesque. Debuted in 1998 with the emotionally and production scarred Medeiros, returned in 1999 with Hope and Adams with the help of producer Dave Fridmann (Flaming Lips, Sparklehorse). There's also some compilation (according to AMG) called Raised Ranch Revolution, but beats me if I know what it is. Think Red House Painters with less arty intentions, Prozac, and some synthesizers.

Types of wheat grown in the United States

The United States is the world's third largest producer of wheat behind China and India, producing about 60 million metric tons of wheat per year. The United States is also the largest exporter of wheat, exporting between 25 to 30 million metric tons (roughly 50% of the total U.S. production) of wheat annually to other areas of the world, mainly Japan and Egypt. Interestingly, wheat was not a large crop in the United States before the late 1800s. Settlers had a hard time growing European varieties of wheat and ended up with poor yields. However, this all changed when Mennonites from the Ukraine region immigrated to Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota in the late 1800s. They brought a hardy type of wheat with them, called winter wheat, which grew much better than the wheat that was grown there. This wheat is thought to be the ancestor of the modern varieties of wheat grown in the United States today.

There are over 30,000 varieties of wheat, with over 400 varieties commonly grown in the United States. Wheat grown there is grouped into six main classes. The classes are determined by when the wheat is planted (winter or spring), the hardness of the wheat kernel (hard or soft), and the color of the bran coat (red or white).

Winter wheats are planted in the fall in September or October and become dormant during the winter. The freezing temperatures and a layer of snow protect the seeds from insects while they are dormant. The seeds then grow in the spring and are harvested around June and July. Spring wheat is planted in late spring around April. It does not go into dormancy, but instead immediately grows until it is harvested in the summer. Winter wheat yields flour with between 10-12% protein content while spring wheat makes flour with a higher protein content of between 12-14%.

Wheats are classified as either hard or soft depending on the hardness of the endosperm within the wheat kernel. Hard and soft wheats mill differently since hard wheats require more energy to grind. Hard wheats generally have a higher amount of protein and gluten than soft wheats. This makes hard wheats more suitable for yeast breads. Soft wheats are used for more tender baked goods like cakes, cookies, and muffins. Soft and hard wheats are often blended together to make all-purpose flour.

Wheats are also classified as red or white wheats depending on the color of the bran that surrounds the kernel. White wheat does not have any major coloring genes, giving it an amber color, while red wheat has a gene that makes the bran red. White and red wheat are nutritionally identical. Flour from white wheat is apparently milder in taste than red wheat and is thought to produce lighter breads and other baked goods. Whole wheat flour made from white wheat is also lighter in color than the corresponding flour make from red wheat, since the bran is less distinguishable.


The six main classes of wheat are:


Hard Red Winter

  • Production and Exportation: This type is the most prevalent kind of wheat grown in the United States. It accounts for 40% of all wheat produced and 40% of all wheat exported.
  • Region: Crops takes up 23 million acres total. This wheat grows well in cold, sub zero winters and little precipitation. It is grown mainly in the great plains, including Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas.
  • Characteristics: This wheat produces flour with a high amount of gluten and high protein content of about 11-12%. It is mainly used for making bread. Most wheat berries sold are from hard red winter wheat.

Hard Red Spring

  • Production and Exportation: This type accounts for 20% of all wheat produced and 20% of all wheat exported.
  • Region: Crops take up 13.8 million acres total. Grown mainly in north-central plains including Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota. The rich soil and dry, hot summers in these states make them ideal for growing this type of wheat.
  • Characteristics: This wheat produces flour with a higher protein content than hard red winter wheat of about 13-14%. This type is also predominately used for making bread.

Hard White

  • Production and Exportation: Since this type is relatively new there is currently minimal growth and exportation.
  • Region: Crops take up 0.3 million acres total. Grown mainly in California, Idaho, Kansas, and Montana.
  • Characteristics: This type is the newest class of wheat to be grown and has much potential for increased use. Its flour is used to make noodles, yeast breads, and flat breads.

Soft White

  • Production and Exportation: This type accounts for about 20% of all wheat grown and 20% of total exports.
  • Region: Crops take up 8.3 million acres total. Grown mainly in the Pacific northwest region.
  • Characteristics: This type produces flour with a lower protein content of about 10%. It is used to make cakes, pastries, flat breads, crackers, and noodles. This type is similar to and often substituted with soft red winter wheat.

Soft Red Winter

  • Production and Exportation: This type accounts for about 15% total wheat grown and 14% of total exports.
  • Region: Crops take up 13 million acres total. This wheat prefers more humid environments than hard wheat. It is grown in the Eastern third of the United States from Texas to the Great Lakes to the Atlantic ocean. The highest quality soft red winter wheat is thought to come from Ohio.
  • Characteristics: This type produces flour with a lower protein content of about 10%. It is used to make cakes, pastries, flat breads, and crackers

Durum

  • Production and Exportation: This type accounts for 5% of total production and total exports.
  • Region: Crops take up 3.2 million acres total. This type is grown in the same regions as hard red spring wheat and also includes Arizona and California, Michigan and New York, and Oregon and Washington.
  • Characteristics: This type has the hardest kernel and its flour contains a high amount of protein of about 12%. It is make into semolina and durum flour that is used to make pasta products and couscous, but it is not suitable for breads or pastries.



citnews.unl.edu/uswheat/classes.html
www.gptc.com/help/About_W2.htm
www.cyberspaceag.com/wheatvarieties.html
ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0146.html
http://cnas.tamu.edu/publications/5Wheat.pdf

Wheat (?), n. [OE. whete, AS. hwte; akin to OS. hwti, D. weit, G. weizen, OHG. weizzi, Icel. hveiti, Sw. hvete, Dan. hvede, Goth. hwaiteis, and E. while. See White.] Bot.

A cereal grass (Triticum vulgare) and its grain, which furnishes a white flour for bread, and, next to rice, is the grain most largely used by the human race.

⇒ Of this grain the varieties are numerous, as red wheat, white wheat, bald wheat, bearded wheat, winter wheat, summer wheat, and the like. Wheat is not known to exist as a wild native plant, and all statements as to its origin are either incorrect or at best only guesses.

Buck wheat. Bot. See Buckwheat. -- German wheat. Bot. See 2d Spelt. -- Guinea wheat Bot., a name for Indian corn. -- Indian wheat, ∨ Tartary wheat Bot., a grain (Fagopyrum Tartaricum) much like buckwheat, but only half as large. -- Turkey wheat Bot., a name for Indian corn. -- Wheat aphid, ∨ Wheat aphis Zool., any one of several species of Aphis and allied genera, which suck the sap of growing wheat. -- Wheat beetle. Zool. (a) A small, slender, rusty brown beetle (Sylvanus Surinamensis) whose larvae feed upon wheat, rice, and other grains. (b) A very small, reddish brown, oval beetle (Anobium paniceum) whose larvae eat the interior of grains of wheat. -- Wheat duck Zool., the American widgeon. [Western U. S.] -- Wheat fly. Zool. Same as Wheat midge, below. -- Wheat grass Bot., a kind of grass (Agropyrum caninum) somewhat resembling wheat. It grows in the northern parts of Europe and America. -- Wheat jointworm. Zool. See Jointworm. -- Wheat louse Zool., any wheat aphid. -- Wheat maggot Zool., the larva of a wheat midge. -- Wheat midge. Zool. (a) A small two-winged fly (Diplosis tritici) which is very destructive to growing wheat, both in Europe and America. The female lays her eggs in the flowers of wheat, and the larvae suck the juice of the young kernels and when full grown change to pupae in the earth. (b) The Hessian fly. See under Hessian. -- Wheat moth Zool., any moth whose larvae devour the grains of wheat, chiefly after it is harvested; a grain moth. See Angoumois Moth, also Grain moth, under Grain. -- Wheat thief Bot., gromwell; -- so called because it is a troublesome weed in wheat fields. See Gromwell. -- Wheat thrips Zool., a small brown thrips (Thrips cerealium) which is very injurious to the grains of growing wheat. -- Wheat weevil. Zool. (a) The grain weevil. (b) The rice weevil when found in wheat.

 

© Webster 1913.

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