The Elements of Style
Next: Elementary Principles of Composition
1. Form the possessive singular of nouns with 's.
Follow this rule whatever the final consonant. Thus write,
the witch's malice
This is the usage of the United States Government Printing Office and of the Oxford University Press.
Exceptions are the possessives of ancient proper names in -es and -is, the possessive Jesus', and such forms as for conscience' sake, for righteousness' sake. But such forms as Achilles' heel
, Moses' laws
, Isis' temple
are commonly replaced by
the heel of Achilles
the laws of Moses
the temple of Isis
possessives hers, its, theirs, yours, and oneself have no apostrophe
2. In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a comma after each term except the last.
red, white, and blue
honest, energetic, but headstrong
He opened the letter, read it, and made a note of its contents.
This is also the usage of the Government Printing Office
and of the Oxford University
In the names of business firms
the last comma is omitted, as
Brown, Shipley and Company
The abbreviation etc., even if only a single term comes before it, is always preceded by a comma.
3. Enclose parenthetic expressions between commas.
The best way to see a country, unless you are pressed for time, is to travel on foot.
This rule is difficult to apply; it is frequently hard to decide whether a single word, such as however, or a brief phrase, is or is not parenthetic. If the interruption to the flow of the sentence is but slight, the writer may safely omit the commas. But whether the interruption be slight or considerable, he must never omit one comma and leave the other. Such punctuation as
Marjorie's husband, Colonel Nelson paid us a visit yesterday,
My brother you will be pleased to hear, is now in perfect health,
Non-restrictive relative clauses are, in accordance with this rule, set off by commas.
The audience, which had at first been indifferent, became more and more interested.
Similar clauses introduced by where and when are similarly punctuated.
In 1769, when Napoleon was born, Corsica had but recently been acquired by France.
Nether Stowey, where Coleridge wrote The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, is a few miles from Bridgewater.
In these sentences the clauses introduced by which, when, and where are non-restrictive; they do not limit the application of the words on which they depend, but add, parenthetically, statements supplementing those in the principal clauses. Each sentence is a combination of two statments which might have been made independently.
The audience was at first indifferent. Later it became more and more interested.
Napoleon was born in 1769. At that time Corsica had but recently been acquired by France.
Coleridge wrote The Rime of the Ancient Mariner at Nether Stowey. Nether Stowey is only a few miles from Bridgewater.
Restrictive relative clauses
are not set off by commas
The candidate who best meets these requirements will obtain the place.
In this sentence the relative clause restricts the application of the word candidate to a single person. Unlike those above, the sentence cannot be split into two independent statements.
The abbreviations etc. and jr. are always preceded by a comma, and except at the end of a sentence, followed by one.
Similar in principle to the enclosing
expressions between commas
is the setting off by commas of phrases or dependent clauses preceding or following the main clause of a sentence. The sentences quoted in this section and under Rules
4, 5, 6, 7, 16, and 18 should afford sufficient guidance.
If a parenthetic expression is preceded by a conjunction, place the first comma before the conjunction, not after it.
He saw us coming, and unaware that we had learned of his treachery, greeted us with a smile.
4. Place a comma before and or but introducing an independent clause.
The early records of the city have disappeared, and the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed.
The situation is perilous, but there is still one chance of escape.
of this type, isolated from their context, may seem to be in need of rewriting
. As they make complete
sense when the comma
is reached, the second
clause has the appearance
of an after-thought. Further
, and, is the least specific
. Used between independent clause
s, it indicates only that a relation
exists between them without defining that relation. In the example above, the relation is that of cause and result. The two sentences
might be rewritten
As the early records of the city have disappeared, the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed.
Although the situation is perilous, there is still one chance of escape.
Or the subordinate clause
s might be replaced by phrase
Owing to the disappearance of the early records of the city, the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed.
In this perilous situation, there is still one chance of escape.
But a writer
may err by making his sentences too uniformly compact and periodic, and an occasional loose sentence prevents the style from becoming too formal and gives the reader a certain relief. Consequently, loose sentences of the type first quoted are common in easy, unstudied writing. But a writer should be careful not to construct too many of his sentences after this pattern (see Rule 14).
Two-part sentences of which the second member is introduced by as (in the sense of because), for, or, nor, and while (in the sense of and at the same time) likewise require a comma before the conjunction.
If a dependent clause, or an introductory phrase requiring to be set off by a comma, precedes the second independent clause, no comma is needed after the conjunction.
The situation is perilous, but if we are prepared to act promptly, there is still one chance of escape.
For two-part sentences
connected by an adverb
, see the next section
5. Do not join independent clauses by a comma.
If two or more clause
complete and not joined by a conjunction, are to form a single compound
sentence, the proper mark of punctuation
is a semicolon.
Stevenson's romances are entertaining; they are full of exciting adventures.
It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark.
It is of course equally correct to write the above as two sentences each, replacing the semicolons by periods.
Stevenson's romances are entertaining. They are full of exciting adventures.
It is nearly half past five. We cannot reach town before dark.
If a conjunction is inserted, the proper mark is a comma (Rule 4).
Stevenson's romances are entertaining, for they are full of exciting adventures.
It is nearly half past five, and we cannot reach town before dark.
Note that if the second clause
is preceded by an adverb
, such as accordingly, besides, so, then, therefore, or thus, and not by a conjunction, the semicolon is still required.
I had never been in the place before; so I had difficulty in finding my way about.
In general, however, it is best, in writing
, to avoid using so in this manner
; there is danger
that the writer who uses it at all may use it too often. A simple correction
, usually serviceable
, is to omit
the word so, and begin the first clause with as:
As I had never been in the place before, I had difficulty in finding my way about.
If the clauses
are very short, and are alike in form, a comma
is usually permissible
Man proposes, God disposes.
The gate swung apart, the bridge fell, the portcullis was drawn up.
6. Do not break sentences in two.
In other words, do not use periods
I met them on a Cunard liner several years ago. Coming home from Liverpool to New York.
He was an interesting talker. A man who had traveled all over the world, and lived in half a dozen countries.
In both these examples
, the first period
should be replaced by a comma
, and the following word begun with a small letter.
It is permissible to make an emphatic
word or expression
serve the purpose of a sentence and to punctuate
Again and again he called out. No reply.
The writer must, however, be certain that the emphasis is warranted, and that he will not be suspected of a mere blunder in punctuation.
s 3, 4, 5, and 6 cover the most important principles in the punctuation of ordinary sentences; they should be so thoroughly mastered that their application becomes second nature.
7. A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to the grammatical subject.
Walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two children.
walking refers to the subject of the sentence
, not to the woman
. If the writer
wishes to make it refer to the woman, he must recast the sentence:
He saw a woman, accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the road.
Participial phrases preceded by a conjunction
or by a preposition, nouns in apposition, adjectives, and adjective phrases come under the same rule if they begin the sentence.
On arriving in Chicago, his friends met him at the station. ++ When he arrived (or, On his arrival) in Chicago, his friends met him at the station.
A soldier of proved valor, they entrusted him with the defence of the city. ++ A soldier of proved valor, he was entrusted with the defence of the city.
Young and inexperienced, the task seemed easy to me. ++ Young and inexperienced, I thought the task easy.
Without a friend to counsel him, the temptation proved irresistible. ++ Without a friend to counsel him, he found the temptation irresistible.
Sentences violating this rule are often ludicrous.
Being in a dilapidated condition, I was able to buy the house very cheap.
8. Divide words at line-ends, in accordance with their formation and pronunciation.
If there is room
at the end of a line for one or more syllable
s of a word, but not for the whole word, divide the word
, unless this involves
cutting off only a single letter
, or cutting off only two letter
s of a long word
. No hard and fast rule for all words can be laid down. The principles most frequently applicable
Divide the word according to its formation:
know-ledge (not knowl-edge); Shake-speare (not Shakes-peare); de-scribe (not des-cribe); atmo-sphere (not atmos-phere);
Divide "on the vowel:"
edi-ble (not ed-ible); propo-sition; ordi-nary; espe-cial; reli-gious; oppo-nents; regu-lar; classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions possible); deco-rative; presi-dent;
Divide between double letters
, unless they come at the end of the simple
form of the word:
Apen-nines; Cincin-nati; refer-ring; but tell-ing.
is best shown from examples:
for-tune; pic-ture; presump-tuous; illus-tration; sub-stan-tial (either division); indus-try; instruc-tion; sug-ges-tion; incen-diary.
The student will do well to examine the syllable-division in a number of
pages of any carefully
Next: Elementary Principles of Composition