A calendar based in 12 months each starting on new moon. This gave the Babylonians problems regarding when the planting season started. For this reason an extra month was added after the 12th - this was very random for several hundred years - and it wan't until somewhere betwen 500 and 380 BCE, that the Persians noticed that adding seven intercalary months every 19 years kept the lunar calendar from straying from the solar. (Which is still very unprecise)

The New Year began in the Spring and was marked by a festival of approximately twelve days, which included the ritual sacrifice of a sheep whose head was then removed to the wilderness presumably to cleanse the community of elemental chaos.

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