The mysterious, extinct native inhabitants of the island of Newfoundland.

These natives used a red ochre dye to cover their bodies, and it is from this appearance that the expressions red men and redskin were coined by European visitors in the 1500s.

While it is believed that the Beothuk drove the Vikings out of Newfoundland, the Beothuk avoided contact with later, more heavily armed Europeans. The Beothuk also fought a losing war with the southerly Mi'kmaq natives. Inevitable conflicts with later European settlers led to violence and the Beothuks retreated away from settlements. By 1800, due to starvation, prior conflict with the Mi'kmaq natives, and a shoot on sight practice common amongst settlers, the numbers of Beothuk had dwindled precipitously. Nancy Shanawhdit, the last known Beothuk, died in 1829.