Shield types Petra: Small light shield of Greeks and Macedonians. Possibly the same as 'pelta' or peltarion, which is noted as being both crescent shaped and round. I suspect the 'crescent' shaped may refer to it's concavity. In any case, smaller then the Clipeus, and carried by skirmishing infantry (Peltasts). is the image provided, by may be made up. Cetra/Targe: Small round Celtic shield, w/ center spike. Laminated wood? Parma: Small round Greco-Roman shield, strongly made, used metal in construction. Scuta: Large rectangular Roman shield; concave. 2.5' wide by 4' tall. -Early scutari are sometimes oval?

Clipeus: Large round Greek shield; held using strap (balteus)and central handle (umbo). Concave. Wicker base, covered with ox-hide and edged with metal. Used by Homeric heroes, it later shrank in size. Later the balteus and central handle were discarded in favor of a series of ties. Gallic: Large oval Celtic shield, w/ boss. Probably laminated wood. Hoplon/Argive: Greek shield built around wood core, using balteus and grips? 15.5 lbs., 30-39" diameter, used in shield wall.

Shields in Phalanx listed as protecting more the person to the left then the person holding the shield; center boss may have been used as a place to 'hook' the elbow, so more then 1/2 of the shield covered the next person in line.