Canebrake (Arundinaria gigantea) is the only native American bamboo. Once it grew along streams, rivers and marshes from Maryland to Florida and Texas, covering an estimated 5 million acres. Flood control and overgrazing has nearly eradicated the canebrake.

Native Americans used canebrake to make baskets, flutes, mats, and blowguns.

A Texas subspecies of canebrake is called switch cane. All the varieties are sometimes also called river cane.