In Chinese, the translated names of SI units depends on whether you are in mainland China or in Taiwan.

Putonghua translates the SI base unit and each of the prefixes; it then applies them according to the standard rules.

• wēi micro-
• háo milli-
• centi-
• fēn deci-
• shí deca-
• bǎi hecto-
• qiān kilo-

The base units are:

• metre
• shēng litre
• gram (but kilogram is jīn)

. Applying the prefixes you have:

• 微米 wēimǐ micrometre (micron)
• 毫米 háomǐ millimetre
• 厘米 límǐ centimetre
• 分米 fēnmǐ decimetre
• mǐ (or 公米 gōngmǐ) metre
• 十米 shímǐ decametre
• 百米 bǎimǐ hectometre
• 千米 qiānmǐ kilometre (but more usually 公里 gōnglǐ)

Square measures are prefixed 平方 píngfāng: e.g., 平方分米 square centimetre. Cubic measures are prefixed 立方 lìfāng: e.g., 立方分米 cubic centimetre. Volumes are similar. However weights are not so straightforward:

• 亳克 háokè milligram
• 厘克 líkè decigram
• gram
• 十克 shíkè decagram
• 百克 bǎikè hectogram
• 公斤 gōngjīn kilogram
• 公擔 gōngdàn quintal
• 千斤 qiānjīn (or dūn) metric ton

Taiwan uses the word 公 gōng (short for 公制計量單位 gōngzhì jìliàng dānwèi, which is the name for the International System of Units) prefixed to the nearest equivalent traditional Chinese unit.

• 公釐 gōnglí (also written 公厘) millimetre (abbrev. 粍)
• 公分 gōngfēn centimetre (abbrev. 糎)
• 公寸 gōngcùn decimetre (abbrev. 籿)
• 公尺 gōngchǐ metre (abbrev. 粎; transliterated as 米突 mǐtú)
• 公丈 gōngzhàng decametre (abbrev. 粀 or 籵)
• 公引 gōngyǐn hectometre (abbrev. 粌 or 粨)
• 公里 gōnglǐ kilometre (abbrev. 粁)

The abbreviations do not have a single syllable pronunciation (although Unicode gives a fallacious one). Amazingly, my Taiwanese dictionary gives ㄇㄧㄌㄧㄇㄝㄊㄜㄦ 'millimetre' as one of the the standard pronunciations for 粍—and so forth. I can only presume the influence of Japanese in this.

Volumes and liquid measure are constructed likewise (with a few additional words where there is no equivalent or near equivalent Chinese weight)

• 公撮 gōngcuō millilitre
• 公勺 gōngsháo centilitre
• 公合 gōnggě decilitre
• 公升 gōngshēng litre
• 公斗 gōngdǒu decalitre
• 公石 gōngshí hectolitre
• 公秉 gōngbǐng kilolitre
• 公絲 gōngsī milligram
• 公毫 gōngháo centigram
• 公銖 gōngzhū decigram
• 公克 gōngkè (or 公分 gōngfēn) gram
• 公錢 gōngqián decagram
• 公兩 gōngliǎng hectogram
• 公斤 gōngjīn kilogram
• 公衡 gōnghéng myriagram
• 公擔 gōngdàn quintal
• 公噸 gōngdūn metric ton

The precise values of each of these units has changed from dynasty to dynasty. Their current values are as follows:–

• lí (also written )
• fēn (= 10)
• cùn (= 10) = 3.33 cm
• chǐ (= 10) = 333 cm
• zhàng (= 10) = 3.33 m
• yǐn (= 10)
• lǐ (= 15) = 0.5 km

• cuō = 1 ml
• sháo (= 10)
• gě (= 10)
• shēng (= 10)
• dǒu (= 10) = 1 l
• shí (= 10)

• sī (= 10)
• háo (= 10)
• fēn (= 10)
• qián (= 10) = 5 g
• liǎng (= 10) = 50 g
• jīn (= 10) = 500 g
• dàn (= 100)

Chinese Weights and Measures (until the end of the 戰國 Warring States period circa 256 BC)

• cùn = 2.25cm
• zhǐ (= 8) = 18.0 cm
• chǐ (= 10) = 22.5 cm
• bù (= 6) = 1.13 m
• rèn (= 7) = 1.58 m
• xún (= 8) = 1.80 m
• zhàng (= 10) = 2.25 m
• lǐ (= 300) = 405 m

• gě = 19.4 ml
• shēng (= 10) = 194 ml
• dòu (= 4) = 776 ml
• dǒu (= 10) = 1.94 l
• hú (= 10) = 19.4 l
• zhōng (= 256) = 49.66 l

《孫子算經》 Sūnzǐ Suàn Jīng gives 圭 = 64 黍、圭 = 6 粟、撮 = 10 圭、抄 = 10 撮。
《隋書》 Suì Shū gives 圭 = 6 粟、抄 = 10 圭、撮 = 10 抄。
《夏侯陽算經》 Xià Hóuyáng Suàn Jīng gives 圭 = 10 粟。

• zhū = 0.67 g
• liǎng (= 10) = 16 g
• jīn (= 16) = 256 g
• jūn (= 30) = 7.68 kg

References:
《最新現代漢語大詞典》新加坡：世界書局（1992）。
《辭海》臺灣：鐘文出版社（民國八十九年）。