In

classical mechanics the path chosen by a system is the path that minimises the action, which is the time

integral of the lagrangian, L(q, qdot, t) = T - V. T is the

kinetic energy and V the

potential energy, q is some set of

coordinates and qdot indicates their time

derivatives. The q may be any set of coordinates,

euclidian,

spherical,

cylindrical or anything else that seems convenient.
Note that there might be time dependence in T and V.

Minimizing the action leads to a set of differential equations of motion for q, the Euler-Lagrange equations.
Solving them is usually much simpler than writing down all the forces in the system, since it is possible in the Lagrangian to choose any convenient set of coordinates and to include time dependence. Also it is possible to include constraints in the equations, to keep a cart on a rollercoaster track, for instance.