(Pronounced "Vay-dick") A system based on 16 sutras contained in the Vedas, Vedic Mathematics makes it possible to solve long mathematical problems very quickly in one's head. Some of the sutras and corollaries do require paper and pen, however.

Vedic maths were lost for centuries before Sri Bharati Krisna Tirthaji rediscovered them from 1911 to 1918. The original 16 volumes of his work were synthesized into his final work, Vedic Mathematics, published in 1965, five years after his death.

These 16 mathematical shortcuts and their corollaries (also called the upsutras or subsutras) are explained in the nodes below:

  1. Ekadhikina Purvena; corollary: Anurupyena

  2. Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah; corollary: Sisyate Sesasamjnah

  3. Urdhva-Tiryagbyham; corollary: Adyamadyenantyamantyena

  4. Paraavartya Yojayet; corollary: Kevalaih Saptakam Gunyat

  5. Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye; corollary: Vestanam

  6. Anurupye - Shunyamanyat; corollary: Yavadunam Tavadunam

  7. Sankalana - Vyavakalanabhyam; corollary: Yavadunam Tavadunikritya Varga Yojayet

  8. Puranapuranabyham; corollary: Antyayor Dasakepi

  9. Chalana - Kalanabyham; corollary: Antyayoreva

  10. Yaavadunam; corollary: Samuccayagunitah

  11. Vyashtisamanstih; corollary: Lopanasthapanabhyam

  12. Shesanyankena Charamena; corollary: Vilokanam

  13. Sopaantyadvayamantyam; corollaries: Gunitasamuchyah and Samuccayagunitah

  14. Ekanyunena Purvena; corollary: Dhvajanka

  15. Gunitasamuchyah; corollary: Dwandwa Yoga

  16. Samuccayagunitah; corollary: Adyam Antyam Madhyam

So far, I have only noded the 18 sutras and corollaries that I was absolutely certain I understood. The sutras and corollaries that are italicized are not currently noded.

Important Note: There is much controversy over whether these sutras were actually found in the Vedas, or if Tirthaji invented some or all of them. Tirthaji said these sutras were found in an appendix of Atharvaveda, which is now lost. There is also controversy (and some conspiracy theory) over whether these sutras can be called a mathematical system. To read about the controversy, see the last three links listed in the resources below.

Vedic Mathematics by Sri Bharati Krisna Tirthaji
Mathemagics by Arthur Benjamin and Michael B. Shermer