A stirrup in Japan. The very early Japanese stirrups had hooded toes and quite long iron straps for the stirrup leathers. Some had long footplates, like the later ones, of which some were perforated to let out water picked up when crossing rivers. These were called suiba abumi, literally “crossing a river on horseback stirrups.”

The later stirrups differed from all others in having no sides. In rare cases there is a rod from the upper end of the front to the footplate near the heel; this prevents the foot from slipping out sideways. The root plate is large enough for the entire foot to rest on, and curves lip and back at the front so as to bring the loop for the stirrup leather over the instep. They arc usually made entirely of iron, but sometimes have iron frames filled in with wood. Occasionally they have perforated footplates.