Pashto, sometimes spelt Pashtu, is one of the primary languages spoken in Afghanistan. The other is Dari, also known as Afghan Persian. Pashto is the first language of only about 35% of Afghans.

Pashto is a member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-European group of languages, and is closely related to Dari, Farsi, and Kurdish. It is typically written with the Arabic alphabet.

Khushhal Khan Khatak, sometimes called the national poet of Afghanistan, is the best known writer of Pashto literature.