Titanium (atomic symbol "Ti", atomic number = 22, atomic weight = 47.90) is a lightweight, strong white metal. (It is as strong as steel, but 45% lighter.) It is often alloyed with aluminum, manganese and iron, among others to produce strong lightweight alloys that can withstand extreme temperatures. These alloys are used to make airplanes, missiles and racing bikes. Titanium dioxide is extensively used as a pigment.

As with the rest of the write-ups, however, it may be interesting to note that Titanium was first discovered by William McGregor, an English Clergyman and amateur mineralogist, in 1791, in Ilmenite sand.

A german chemist, Martin Klaproth found the element to be present in the mineral Rutile, in 1795. It was this man who named it after the Titans, the mythological first sons of the Earth.

A sample of the element was first produced in 1825, but it wasn't until the Kroll process was discovered in 1937 that it became commercially produced.

It is an important material for Aerospace applications, with 80% of the Titanium metal production going to this field. The oxide is also used in paints, as a pigment.

Titanium is not really used on its own and instead is alloyed to form Titanium Alloys.

Titanium has two crystallographic phases. One is knowm as Alpha-Titanium, which is a hexagonal close packed, or HCP structure. The other is Beta-Titanium, which is body-centred cubic. These are the basis of Titanium Alloy technology.

Ground state configuration: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d2.

Symbol: Ti
Atomic Number: 22
Boiling Point: 3560 K
Melting Point: 1935 K
Density at 300K: 4.54 g/cm3
Covalent radius: 1.32
Atomic radius: 2.00
Atomic volume: 10.60 cm3/mol
First ionization potental: 6.82 V
Specific heat capacity: 0.523 Jg-1K-1
Thermal conductivity: 21.9 Wm-1K-1
Electrical conductivity: 2.6 106Ω-1m-1
Heat of fusion: 18.6 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 425.2 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 1.54 (Pauling's)

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Ti*ta"ni*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. Titani or Titanes, Gr. , the sons of the earth.] Chem.

An elementary substance found combined in the minerals manaccanite, rutile, sphene, etc., and isolated as an infusible iron-gray amorphous powder, having a metallic luster. It burns when heated in the air. Symbol Ti. Atomic weight 48.1.


© Webster 1913.

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