A Peltier, or Peltier Device (aka thermoelectric device, thermoelectric module, Peltier Module), is a device made up of two dissimilar conductors or semiconductors which, when DC voltage is applied, experiences the Peltier Effect: one side decreases in temperature (absorbs heat), the other side increases temperature (releases heat). If the current is reversed, the conductors operate in reverse. An example of two materials frequently used is Copper & Bismuth Telluride.
Named for French physicist Jean-Charles-Athanase Peltier, who discovered what is now known as the "Peltier Effect" in 1834.
Commercial uses include portable refrigerators/warmers (Igloo Coolers' Active Cooling Products), CPU coolers. See Overclocking, Heatsink Fan Unit.
In theory, an eccentric way to cool your overclocked CPU, however few manufacturers offer the whole nine yards, (and the resulting heat generated creates issues).
see: http://www.tellurex.com/resource/txfaq.htm (long)