A

hypothetical timekeeping device, useful in thinking about

relativity and

time dilation. It is a set of two connected

parallel mirrors, in between which a single

photon is bouncing eternally. A single "tick" of this clock occurs when the photon makes a full

round-trip between the two mirrors. If the mirrors are one

meter apart, a single "tick" takes 9.9×10

^{-9} (we'll call this t

_{tick}) seconds--

*unless*, as we shall see, the clock is moving relative to an

observer.

If the clock has some velocity

perpendicular to the motion of the photon, the photon's path will be

diagonal, rather than the straight

up-and-down motion it had when the clock was at rest. The distance that it has to travel with some velocity is equal to the square root of (vertical distance traveled in the space of t

_{tick} squared plus distance between mirrors squared), by the

Pythagorean theorem. Since

light always moves at the same speed, and a greater distance was traveled, we have no choice but to conclude that t

_{tick} is

*greater* with a moving clock than with one at rest. Of course, like most

relativistic phenomena, this effect is only noticeable at very high velocities, but it is still a relevant effect.

A common assumption here is "Well, so that works with one of these crazy light clocks, but not with this

brand-new Rolex, right?"

But this is incorrect. (The following demonstration is borrowed from

The Elegant Universe by

Brian Greene.) Let's place both the light clock and your Rolex in a train moving at constant velocity. If all the windows are closed, then (according to

relativity) it should be impossible to detect whether the train is moving at all. But if your assumption is true, then the light clock will slow down while the Rolex does not, which would

shatter the illusion of being stationary. Thus, any timekeeping device will slow down when moving.

Light clocks can also be used to demonstrate that

length contracts in the direction of motion...

maybe later.