An interesting effect posited by James F. Woodward, professor of History and Physics at the State University of California Fullerton. It is based on Mach's Principle. According to Woodward, changing the mass of an object is possible, at least transiently, by rapidly changing its energy density.

Here is a more complete description, from the Quantum Cavorite:

Mach's Principle explains inertia -- the tendency of an object to resist acceleration -- by the sum of the gravitational attractions of all objects in the universe. Woodward, an expert on Mach's Principle, found a "loop hole" (really, a transient term that most neglect) which predicts that a time-varying energy density results in a sizeable mass fluctuation, and has demonstrated this in more than one well documented experiments.

He predicts that this is only possible if Mach's Principle is valid, because a certain constant in his equations approaches c2, which cancels out the c2 in Einstein's E = Mc2; if Mach's Principle is invalid, then rapidly changing energy densities (of a magnitude possible in a modern lab) would not result in large mass fluctuations because the c2 term would be very large.

His experiments used a small array of capacitors whose energy density was varied by an applied 11 kHz signal. The beauty of his experiment was the following insight -- if you vibrate these capacitors up and down using a piezoelectric crystal, at just the right frequency so that they are going up when their mass is the least and going down when their mass is the most, then a small, constant, mass change is possible. The largest mass change he measured was 4.4 milligrams.

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