Notable conductor of an earlier age. Born in 1879, he ascended the musical heirarchy rapidly, working extensively with both the Vienna and Berlin Philharmonics. He opposed the Nazis in several ways, both in saving jewish musicians and in promoting anti-nazi pieces like Hindemith's Mathis der Maler symphony. It is thus ironic that he was punished by the war crimes tribunal. In has last years he recorded very extensively, dying in 1954. He was a Master with most all music, notably Brahms and Anton Bruckner, but above all with Beethoven, in which (in the opinion of many) he is supreme.

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