(Sektion 41: Philosophische Untersuchungen von Ludwig Wittgenstein).

41. In §15 we introduced proper names into language (8) (see, e.g., the builder language described in Philosophische Untersuchungen 2 -TR). Now suppose that the tool with the name "N" is broken. A does not know this and gives B the sign "N". Does this sign have meaning now or does it have none?--What should B do if he receives this sign?--We have agreed upon anything about this. One can ask: what will he do? Now, he will perhaps stand there at a loss, or show A the pices. One can say here: "N" has become referenceless (meaningless -TR); and this expression would say that the sign "N" in our language-game has no use anymore (unless we gave it a new one). "N" can also become referenceless because, for whatever reason, one gave the tool another name and the sign "N" was no longer used in the language-game.--But we can also imagine an agreement that B, when a tool is broken and A gives him the sign for this tool, shakes his had as an answer.--With this one can say that the command "N", even if the tool no longer exists, has a place in the language-game, and the sign "N" has a reference even if its bearer ceases to exist.

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