Some fragments from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s last work, before he died, compiled and edited posthumously which was written originally with to supplement G.E. Moore's attempt to counter the spread of Creationism as a force in public schools, but which now stands as an essential logical argument against philosophical relativism and solipsism of all varieties:

§ 115 : If you tried to doubt everything, you would not get as far as doubting anything. The game of doubting itself presupposes certainty. (p. 18)

§ 121 : Can one say : ‘Where there is no doubt, there is no knowledge either.’

§ 160 : The child learns by believing adults. Doubt comes after belief. (p. 25)

§ 174 : I act with complete certainty. But this certainty is my own.

§ 229 : Our talk gets its meaning from the rest of our proceedings. (p. 30)

§ 276 : We believe, so to speak, that this great building exists, and then we see, now here, now there, only one or another tiny corner of it. (p. 36)

§ 410 : Our knowledge forms an enormous system. An only within this system has a particular bit the value we give it. (p. 52)

§ 471 : It is so difficult to find the beginning. Or better: it is difficult to begin at the beginning. And not try to go further back. (p. 62)

§ 645 : I can’t be making a mistake – but some day, rightly or wrongly, I may think I realize that I was not competent to judge. (p. 76)

Source: L. Wittgenstein, On Certainty trans. G.E.M. Anscombe (NY : Harper, 1969)

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