Broadly, the practice of creating artifacts that mimic the biophysical properties of the nervous system. Whereas most neural networks are, at best, 'inspired' by biology, neuromorphic systems attempt to accurately replicate biology, right down to ion channels. NE could be seen as a form of computational science, though it is probably more strongly slanted toward engineering than most CS (in part because of the emphasis on hardware).

The term was coined by Carver Mead (after "eclectronics" failed to catch on), and originally referred to what is today known as Neuromorphic Analog VLSI. This medium is still preferred, and silicon neurons continue make up the bulk of neuromorphic research. A side effect of this has been a small Renaissance in analog computing, which was (in a roundabout way) the goal of NE to begin with.

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