A philosophical theory proposed by David Gilboa, a professor at University of Wisconsin Oshkosh. According to this theory, individual actions are in themselves amoral, except when they fall on a certain law (in the legal sense, that is.) Laws, according to this theory, should be based on what economic theory says that creates a prosperous economy. It also states that people make decisions based on that which maximizes their values, but which may not necessarily maximize that person's happiness. Values, according to this theory, are those behaviors instilled by "authority figures" (parents, teachers, etc.) from childhood and so thus values of a person take a long time to instill. Thus, according to this, motivational speakers are a waste of money since you cannot change a person's values in an hour or two.