The fourth mode of the Melodic Minor scale. Commonly found only in jazz and classical, this little tidbit is sure to spice up anyone's musical taste. The scale outlines a dominant seventh chord, which is why it is called the lydian dominant scale. And here it is:

D lydian dominant
To find the notes for the scale, we must derive it's mother Melodic Minor scale.
So, if D is the IV chord, then A must be our i chord. Here is A melodic minor: A B C D E F# G# A Basing our scale on D instead of A, we arrive at our Lydian Dominant scale. D E F# G# A B C D Which outlines D F# A C (or D7)
This scale highly resembles the D major scale, but with two alterations: The raised fourth of the lydian scale (where it gets its name from) and the lowered seventh of the mixolydian scale (where the 'dominant' part comes in). The scale is generally played over a dominant seventh chord and its various alterations. Its use is often suggested by the chord symbol V7#11 (or b5), which is basically just the outlined chord without a fifth. Try not to have too much fun with these chords, or you'll end up becoming a musician.

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