ICA is an abbreviation for "Independent Computing Architecture"

Its defined by Citrix as:

"... the foundation of Citrix server-based computing with MetaFrame XP and ICA Client software. In simplified terms, the ICA protocol transports an application's screens from a MetaFrame XP server to ICA client users, and returns the users' input to the application server."

And in my simplified terms - its basically a fancy version of Microsoft's Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP).

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