At the Diet of Augsburg, 1531-1532 Charles V had two main aims:
  1. Assistance in his battles against the Turks
  2. Some form of Religious settlement

Charles V demanded a new statement of the Lutheran position. This lead to the Augsburg Confession, a document drawn up mainly by Philip Melanchthon, one of Luther’s closest advisers yet he was also politically more aware than Luther.

The Confession was a compromise and omitted many controversial doctrines. However the Roman Catholic Princes at the Diet and Cardinal Campeggio, the Papal envoy, rejected the confession. This lead the Lutherans to withdraw from the Diet.

Charles V felt let down by the Pope and the Catholic Princes. He was unable to take and offensive action against the Lutherans because of the Turk menace. Charles V began to press for a General Council.

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