Henry Darcy was the 19th century French hydraulic engineer who is responsible for the field of groundwater hydrology as a quantitative science. Darcy observed that the loss in pressure head of fluid flowing through a porous medium (as measured by manometers), was correlated with the distance the water flowed. Darcy's Law can be summarized
 Q = -K ---- A
where Q is the flow rate, A is the cross sectional area perpindicular to the flow area, dh is the pressure loss (measured in meters of water), dl is the distance between observing points and K is an empirical constant known as the hydraulic conductivity.

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